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March 2020 DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.23856.71680

License CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Project: Toxicity study of chlorine dioxide in solution (CDS) ingested orally

Andreas Ludwig Kalcker co. : Liechtensteiner Verein für Wissenschaft und Gesundheit LI-9491 Ruggel Email This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) It has been used for more than 100 years to combat all types of bacteria, viruses and fungi. It acts as a disinfectant, since in its mode of action it turns out to be an oxidant. [1 # BiologicalEfficacyList] It is very similar to the way our own body acts, for example in phagocytosis, where an oxidation process is used to eliminate all kinds of pathogens. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) It is a yellowish gas that, to date, is not included in the conventional pharmacopoeia as an active ingredient, although it is used in a mandatory way to disinfect and preserve blood bags for transfusions.[2 # Alcide studies on blood disinfection] It is also used in most of the bottled waters suitable for consumption, since it does not leave toxic residues; In addition to being a gas that is very soluble in water and evaporates from 11ºC. 

The recent Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic demands urgent solutions with alternative approaches. Therefore, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in aqueous solution at low doses promises to be an ideal, fast and effective solution for the elimination of this virus. Too many times it happens that the solution is in the simplest way. The approach is as follows: on the one hand we know that viruses are absolutely sensitive to oxidation and on the other, if it works in human blood bags against viruses such as HIV and other pathogens, why wouldn't it work organically against the coronavirus?

1.- Chlorine dioxide eliminates viruses through the selective oxidation process in a very short time. It achieves this through the denaturation of the capsid proteins, and subsequently oxidizes the genetic material of the virus, disabling it. 

The application of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) orally or even parenterally is a totally new approach that has been studied by Andreas Ludwig Kalcker for more than thirteen years with a result of three pharmaceutical patents for parenteral use. It can be produced by any pharmacy as a magisterial preparation and has been used in a similar way to (DAC N-055) in the old German Drug Code as “Natrium Chlorosum” since 1990.

Until now, only solutions based on vaccines have been proposed, which result in extremely slow and risky processes, since they always require sufficient energy reserves that a body affected with the disease cannot provide. The great advantage of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is that it works for any viral subspecies and there is no possible resistance to this type of oxidation. [# 3 Investigation on virucidal activity of chlorine dioxide] Let's not forget that this substance has been used for 100 years in wastewater without generating any type of resistance.

2.- There is already scientific evidence that chlorine dioxide is effective in coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 a base virus COVID-19 [SARS Fact Sheet, National Agricultural Biosecurity Center, Kansas State University] and in the Coronavirus family in general · [Chlorine Dioxide, Part 1 A Versatile, High-Value Sterilant for the Biopharmaceutical Industry, Barry Wintner, Anthony Contino, Gary O'Neill. BioProcess International DECEMBER 2005.] It has also been shown to be effective in human coronavirus[#4 BASF Aseptrol document]and in animals such as dogs, known as canine respiratory coronavirus, or cats, including feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the better known feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), since it denatures the capsids by oxidation, inactivating the virus in a short time [2-log 4.2 / 4-log 25.1 Source USEPA 2003 WHO Guidelines for drinking water Quality]

Pharmacology. 2016; 97 (5-6): 301-6. doi: 10.1159 / 000444503. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

It should be noted that ingesting chlorine dioxide is a completely new antiviral approach as it is an oxidant and is able to eliminate any subspecies or virus variation by combustion.[6 # ClO2 is a size selective biocide] Given the emergency situation in which we currently find ourselves with Covid-19, the oral use of ClO2 is considered immediately through a protocol already known and used. 

3.- ToxicityThe biggest problems with drugs in general are due to their toxicity and side effects. New studies demonstrate its viability.[7 # New Clo2 safety evaluation 2017] Although the toxicity of chlorine dioxide in case of massive inhalation is known, there is not a single clinically demonstrated death even at high doses by oral ingestion.[8 # Controlled Clinical Evaluations of Clo2 in Man] The lethal dose (LD50, acute toxicity ratio) is considered to be 292 mg per kilo for 14 days, where its equivalent in a 50 kg adult would be 15.000 mg administered for two weeks of a gas dissolved in water (something almost impossible).[9 # toxicity of clo2 and chlorite ions].

The oral sub-toxic doses used are around 50 mg dissolved in 100 ml of water 10 times a day, which is equivalent to 0,5 g daily (and therefore only 1/30 of the LD50 of 15 g of ClO2 per day).

As chlorine dioxide dissociates, it breaks down in the human body within a few hours into a negligible amount of common salt (NaCL) and oxygen (O2) within the human body. In addition, venous blood gas measurements have indicated that it is capable of substantially improving the lung oxygenation capacity of the affected patient.

Voluntary: IV application 500 ml NaCl (0,9%) with a concentration of 50 ppm ClO2

Voluntary: IV application 500 ml NaCl (0,9%) with a concentration of 50 ppm ClO2

Voluntary: IV application 500 ml NaCl (0,9%) with a concentration of 50 ppm ClO2


As a general rule, most viruses behave similarly and once they bind to the appropriate host type - bacteria or cell, as the case may be - the nucleic acid component of the virus that is injected takes over afterwards. of the protein synthesis processes of the infected cell. Certain segments of the viral nucleic acid are responsible for the replication of the capsid's genetic material. In the presence of these nucleic acids, the CLO2 molecule becomes unstable and dissociates, releasing the resulting oxygen into the environment, which in turn helps oxygenate the surrounding tissue by increasing mitochondrial activity and thus the response of the immune system.[6 # ClO2 is a size selective biocide].

Nucleic acids, DNA-RNA, consist of a chain of puric and pyrimidine bases, see: guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A) and thymine (T). It is the sequence of these four units along the chain that makes one segment different from another. Guanine base, which is found in both RNA and DNA, is very sensitive to oxidation, forming 8-oxoguanine as a by-product of it. Therefore, when the CLO2 molecule comes into contact with guanine and oxidizes it, it results in the formation of 8-oxoguanine, thus blocking the replication of the viral nucleic acid through base pairing. Although the replication of the protein capsid can continue; the formation of the fully functional virus is blocked by oxidation thanks to CLO2.

The CLO2 molecule has characteristics that make it an ideal candidate for treatment in the clinical setting, since it is a product with a high power of selective oxidation and with a great capacity to reduce acidosis, increasing oxygen in tissues and mitochondria , thus facilitating the rapid recovery of patients with lung diseases.


Chlorine dioxide reacts with antioxidants and various acids, so the use of vitamin C or ascorbic acid is not recommended during treatment, as it nullifies the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in eliminating pathogens (the antioxidant effect of one prevents the selective oxidation of the other.) Therefore, it is not advisable to take antioxidants during the days of treatment. Stomach acid has been shown not to affect its effectiveness. In the cases of patients on Warfarin treatment, they should constantly check the values ​​to avoid cases of overdose, since chlorine dioxide has been shown to improve blood flow.

Although chlorine dioxide is very soluble in water, it has the advantage that it does not hydrolyze, so it does not generate toxic carcinogenic THMs (trihalomethanes) such as chlorine. It also does not cause genetic mutations or malformations.

A protocol has been developed by which a solution of this compound can be taken orally and intravenously. 

Legal bases for the Application immediately:

* In any case, the respective national legislation and, in particular, its provisions for use in case of national emergencies must be observed 



Ethical principles for medical research on human beings.

Adopted by the 18th General Assembly of the WMA, Helsinki, Finland, June 1964, and amended by the Committee:

64th General Assembly of the WMA, Fortaleza, Brazil, October 2013

General principles

  1. The Geneva Declaration of the World Medical Association links the doctor with the formula "to watch over my patient's health first and foremost", and the International Code of Medical Ethics states that: "The doctor must consider the best for the patient when get medical attention ”. 

  1. The duty of the doctor is to promote and ensure the health, well-being and rights of patients, including those who participate in medical research. The knowledge and conscience of the doctor must be subordinated to the fulfillment of this duty. 

  1. The progress of medicine is based on research, which must ultimately include studies in humans.

…… ...

Unproven interventions in clinical practice 

  1. When proven interventions do not exist in the care of a patient or other known interventions have proven ineffective, the doctor, after seeking expert advice, with the informed consent of the patient or an authorized legal representative, may allow himself to use unproven interventions, if, in his opinion, this gives some hope of saving life, restoring health or alleviating suffering. Such interventions should be further investigated in order to assess their safety and efficacy. In all cases, this new information must be recorded and, when appropriate, made available to the public.

source: 8/9 © World Medical Association, Inc. 

List of efficacy in pathogens (referenced)


Adenovirus Type 40 6

Calicivirus 42

Canine Parvovirus 8


Feline Calici Virus 3

Foot and Mouth disease 8

hantavirus 8

Hepatitis A, B & C Virus 3,8

man coronavirus8

Human Immunodeficiency Virus 3

Human Rotavirus type 2 (HRV) 15

Influenza A22

Minute Virus of Mouse (MVM-i) 8

Mouse Hepatitis Virus spp. 8

Mouse Parvovirus type 1 (MPV-1) 8

Murine Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 (Sendai) 8

Newcastle Disease Virus 8

Norwalk Virus 8

poliovirus 20

rotavirus 3

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 43 

Sialodscryoadenitis Virus 8

Simian rotavirus SA-11 15

Theiler's Mouse Encephalomyelitis Virus 8

Vaccinia virus 10


Blakeslea trispora 28 

Bordetella bronchiseptica 8

Brucella swiss 30

Burkholderia spp. 36

Campylobacter jejuni 39

Clostridium botulinum 32

Clostridium difficult 44

Corynebacterium bovis 8

Coxiella burneti (Q-fever) 35

  1. coli spp.1,3,13

Erwinia carotovora (soft rot) 21

Franscicella tularensis 30

Fusarium sambucinum (dry rot) 21

Helicobacter pylori 8

Helminthosporium solani (silver scurf) 21

Klebsiella pneumoniae 3

Lactobacillus spp. 1,5

Legionella spp. 38,42

Leuconostoc spp. 1,5

Listeria spp. 1,19

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 3

Mycobacterium spp. 8,42

Pediococcus acidilactici PH31

Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3,8

Salmonella spp. 1,2,4,8,13

shigella 38

Staphylococcus spp. 1,23

Tuberculosis 3

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis 3

Vibrio spp. 37

Multi-Drug Resistant Salmonella typhimurium 3

Yersinia spp. 30,31,40

Bacterial spores

Alicyclobacillus acidterrestris 17

Bacillus spp. 10,11,12,14,30,31

Clostridium. sporogenes ATCC 1940412

Geobacillus stearothermophilus spp. 11,31

Bacillus thuringiensis 18


Beta-Lactams 29

amplicons 46

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 47


Chironomid larvae 27

Cryptosporidium 34

Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts 9

Cyclospora cayetanensis Oocysts 41

Giardia 34

Alternaria alternata 26

Aspergillus spp. 12,28

Botrytis species 3

Candida spp. 5, 28

Chaetomium globosum 7

Cladosporium cladosporioides 7

Debaryomyces etchellsii 28

Eurotium spp. 5

Fusarium solani 3

Lodderomyces elongisporus28

Mucor spp. 28

Penicillium spp. 3,5,7,28

Phormidium boneri3

Pichia pastoris 3

Poitrasia circinans 28

Rhizopus oryzae 28

Roridin A33

Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3

Stachybotrys chartarum 7

Verrucarin A 33

Biofilms 4 5


  1. Selecting Surrogate Microorganism for Evaluation of Pathogens on Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment, Jeongmok Kim, Somi Koh, Arpan Bhagat, Arun K Bhunia and Richard H. Linton. Purdue University Center for Food Safety 2007 Annual Meeting October 30 - 31, 2007 at Forestry Center, West Lafayette, IN.
  2. Decontamination of produce using chlorine dioxide gas treatment, Richard Linton, Philip Nelson, Bruce Applegate, David Gerrard, Yingchang Han and Travis Selby.
  3. Chlorine Dioxide, Part 1 A Versatile, High-Value Sterilant for the Biopharmaceutical Industry, Barry Wintner, Anthony Contino, Gary O'Neill. BioProcess International DECEMBER 2005.
  4. Chlorine Dioxide Gas Decontamination of Large Animal Hospital Intensive and Neonatal Care Units, Henry S. Luftman, Michael A. Regits, Paul Lorcheim, Mark A. Czarneski, Thomas Boyle, Helen Aceto,

Barbara Dallap, Donald Munro, and Kym Faylor. Applied Biosafety, 11 (3) pp. 144-154 © ABSA 2006

  1. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer for tanks used for aseptic juice storage, Y. Han, AM Guentert *, RS Smith, RH Linton and PE Nelson. Food Microbiology, 1999, 16, 53] 61
  2. Inactivation of Enteric Adenovirus and Feline Calicivirus by Chlorine Dioxide, Thurston-Enriquez, JA, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, June 2005, p. 3100-3105.
  3. Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Gas on Fungi and Mycotoxins Associated with Sick Building Syndrome, SC Wilson, * C. Wu, LA Andriychuk, JM Martin, ... DC Straus. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL

MICROBIOLOGY, Sept. 2005, p. 5399-5403.

  1. BASF Aseptrol Label EPA Registration Number: 70060-19
  2. Effects of Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorine, and Monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Viability, DG KORICH, JR MEAD, MS MADORE, NA SINCLAIR, AND CR STERLING.


  1. NHSRC's Systematic Decontamination Studies, Shawn P. Ryan, Joe Wood, G. Blair Martin, Vipin K. Rastogi (ECBC), Harry Stone (Battelle). 2007 Workshop on Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated

Issues for Sites Contaminated with Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Materials Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina June 21, 2007.

  1. Validation of Pharmaceutical Processes 3rd edition, edited by Aalloco James, Carleton Frederick J. Informa Healthcare USA, Inc., 2008, p267
  2. Chlorine dioxide gas sterilization under square-wave conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56: 514-519 1990. Jeng, DK and Woodworth, AG
  3. Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella enterica on lettuce by chlorine dioxide gas. Food Microbiology Volume 25, Issue 2, February 2008, Pages 244-252, Barakat SMMahmoud and RH Linton.
  4. Determination of the Efficacy of Two Building Decontamination Strategies by Surface Sampling with Culture and Quantitative PCR Analysis. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Aug.

2004, p. 4740-4747. Mark P. Buttner, Patricia Cruz, Linda D. Stetzenbach, Amy K. Klima-Comba, Vanessa L. Stevens, and Tracy D. Cronin

  1. Inactivation of Human and Simian Rotaviruses by Chlorine Dioxide. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, May 1990, p. 1363-1366. YU-SHIAW CHEN AND JAMES M. VAUGHN
  2. Information obtained from CSI internal testing with Pharmaceutical customer. May 2006 Pages 364-368
  3. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores on apple surfaces, Sun-Young Lee, Genisis Iris Dancer, Su-sen Chang, Min-Suk Rhee and Dong-Hyun Kang, International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 108, issue 3, May 2006 Pages 364-368
  4. Decontamination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas, Han Y, Applegate B, Linton RH, Nelson PE. J Environ Health. 2003 Nov; 66 (4): 16-21.
  5. Decontamination of Strawberries Using Batch and Continuous Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatments, Y Han, TL Selby, KKSchultze, PE Nelson, RH Linton. Journal of Food Protection, Vol 67, NO 12, 2004.
  6. Mechanisms of Inactivation of Poliovirus by Chlorine Dioxide and Iodine, MARIA E. ALVAREZ AND RT O'BRIEN, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Nov. 1982, p. 1064-1071
  7. The Use of Chlorine Dioxide in potato storage, NORA OLSEN, GALE KLEINKOPF, GARY SECOR, LYNN WOODELL, AND PHIL NOLTE, University of Idaho, BUL 825.
  8. Protective effect of low-concentration chlorine dioxide gas against influenza A virus infection Norio Ogata and Takashi Shibata Journal of General Virology (2008), 89, 60–67
  9. Preparation and evaluation of novel solid chlorine dioxide-based disinfectant powder in single-pack Zhu M, Zhang LS, Pei XF, Xu X. Biomed Environ Sci. 2008 Apr; 21 (2): 157-62.
  10. Chlorine dioxide oxidation of dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), Bakhmutova-Albert EV, et al. Inorg Chem. 2008 Mar 17; 47 (6): 2205-11. Epub 2008 Feb 16.
  11. Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate, Rodríguez E, Water Res. 2007 Aug; 41 (15): 3381-93. Epub 2007 Jun 20.
  12. Inhibition of hyphal growth of the fungus Alternaria alternata by chlorine dioxide gas at very low concentrations, Morino H, Matsubara A, ... Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007 Apr; 127 (4): 773-7. Japanese.
  13. Inactivation of Chironomid larvae with chlorine dioxide, Sun XB, Cui FY, Zhang JS, Xu F, Liu LJ., J Hazard Mater. 2007 Apr 2; 142 (1-2): 348-53. Epub 2006 Aug 18.
  14. Information obtained from CSI decontamination at Pharmaceutical facility.
  15. Information obtained from CSI beta-lactam inactivation at Pharmaceutical facility.
  16. Decontamination of Contaminated Surfaces with Biological Agents using Fumigant Technologies, S Ryan, J Wood, 2008 Workshop on Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated Issues for Sites

Contaminated with Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Materials Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina September 24, 2008.

  1. Sporicidal Action of CD and VPHP Against Avirulent Bacillus anthracis - Effect of Organic Bio-Burden and Titer Challenge Level, Vipin K. Rastogi, Lanie Wallace & Lisa Smith, 2008 Workshop on

Decontamination, Cleanup, and Associated Issues for Sites Contaminated with Chemical, Biological, or Radiological Materials Sheraton Imperial Hotel, Research Triangle Park, NC 2008 Sept 25.

  1. Clostridium Botulinum, ESR Ltd, May 2001.
  2. Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide as a Gas and in Solution in the Inactivation of Two Trichothecene Mycotoxins, SC Wilson, TL Brasel, JM Martin, C. Wu, L. Andriychuk, DR Douglas, L. Cobos, DC Straus, International Journal of Toxicology, Volume 24, Issue 3 May 2005, pages 181 - 186.
  3. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, World Health Organization, pg 140.
  4. Division of Animal Resources Agent Summary Sheet, M. Huerkamp, ​​June 30, 2003.
  5. NRT Quick Reference Guide: Glanders and Melioidosis
  6. Seasonal Occurrence of the Pathogenic Vibrio sp. of the Disease of Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius Occurring at Low Water Temperatures and the Prevention Methods of the Disease,
  7. TAJIMA, K. TAKEUCHI, M. TAKAHATA, M. HASEGAWA, S. WATANABE, M. IQBAL, Y.EZURA, Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi VOL.66; NO.5; PAGE.799-804 (2000).
  8. Biocidal Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide, TF-249, Nalco Company, 2008.
  9. Sensitivity Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Campylobacter Jejuni And Escherichia Coli Stec To Sublethal Bactericidal Treatments And Development Of Increased Resistance After Repetitive Cycles Of Inactivation, N. Smigic, A. Rajkovic, H. Medic, M. Uyttendaele, F. Devlieghere, Oral presentation. FoodMicro 2008, September 1st - September 4th, 2008, Aberdeen, Scotland.
  10. Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide, MS Harakeh, JD Berg, JC Hoff, and A Matin, Appl Environ Microbiol. 1985 January; 49 (1): 69–72.
  11. Efficacy of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide as a Sanitizer against Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis on Produce, Y. Ortega, A. Mann, M. Torres, V. Cama, Journal of Food Protection, Volume 71, Number 12, December 2008 , p. 2410-2414.
  12. Inactivation of Waterborne Emerging Pathogens by Selected Disinfectants, J. Jacangelo, pg 23.
  13. SARS Fact Sheet, National Agricultural Biosecurity Center, Kansas State University.
  14. High sporicidal activity using dissolved chlorine dioxide (SanDes) on different surface materials contaminated by Clostridium difficile spores, Andersson J., Sjöberg M., Sjöberg L., Unemo M., Noren T. Oral

presentation. 19th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Helsinki, Finland, 16 - 19 May 2009.

  1. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat food processing equipment by chlorine dioxide gas, Trinetta, V., et al. Food Control, Vol 26, 2012
  2. Exposure to chlorine dioxide gas for 4 hours renders Syphacia ova nonviable, Czarra, JA, et al. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 2014 Jul 4: 53 (4): 364-367
  3. Hu, Cheng (2017). Modeling reaction kinetics of chlorine dioxide and volatile organic compounds with artificial neural networks, December 2003.


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